Symptoms of overdose include impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to light coma. Oral (male rat) LD 50 = 695 mg/kg.
For the short-term treatment of insomnia.
It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries. It is classified as an imidazopyridine. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention.
Zolpidem is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.
Zolpidem is converted to inactive metabolites in the liver.
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canada's national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc.
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 06, 2018 19:01.
Markus Sauter, "Process for preparing zolpidem." U.S. Patent US, issued December 05, 2002.
Zolpidem tartrate tablets are converted to inactive metabolites that are eliminated primarily by renal excretion. 2.6 hours.
Zolpidem is a sedative or hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties. It interacts with a GABA-BZ receptor complex and shares some of the pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepines. In contrast to the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively bind to and activate all three alpha receptor subtypes, zolpidem in vitro binds the (alpha1) receptor preferentially. The (alpha1) receptor is found primarily on the Lamina IV of the sensorimotor cortical regions, substantia nigra (pars reticulata), cerebellum molecular layer, olfactory bulb, ventral thalamic complex, pons, inferior colliculus, and globus pallidus.
Unlike the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively interact with all three alpha-receptor subtypes, Zolpidem preferentially binds to the alpha-1 receptor. Zolpidem modulates the alpha-subunit, known as the benzodiazepine receptor, within the GABA A receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex.
92.5 ± 0.1% (independent of concentration between 40 and 790 ng/mL).Zolpidem vs clonazepam